Alexandre Kimenyi
   

IGIKUYU
Alexandre Kimenyi

Igikuyu ni ururimi rumwe mu zinini zo muri Kenya. Izindi zifite abantu benshi zo mu muryango w'Abantu ni Igikamba n'Ikiruya. Haba ni umuryango witwa Nilotiki urimo Ikimasayi, Kalenjini n'Ikijyaluwo. Igikuyu gisangiye ibintu byinshi n'ikinyarwanda kubera ko zombi ziva indimwe ariko na none hari na byinshi by'umwihariko zisangiye bitaboneka mu zindi. Ikizwi cyane ni itegeko rigenga imivugire y'ingombajwi ryitwa irya Dahl (Dahl's Law). Riraza kuboneka hepfo mu ngero ziza gutangwa.
Muri iyi nyandiko, ndibanda cyane ku magambo izi ndimi zombi zisangiye, imiterere y'amagambo hamwe n'amategeko agenga imivugire y'uru rurimi.

I. Amajwi

Igikuyu gifite ingombajwi zirindwi naho ikinyarwanda gifite eshanu gusa ari zo: a, e, i, o na u. Igikuyu gifite za i and u ebyiri. Izi ebyiri, Ikinyarwanda zidafite zivugirwa hejuru kurusha kubera ururimi rwegereye urusenge rw'akanwa. Izi ngombajwi mu ndimi zombi zishobora kuba ndende cyangwa ngufi. Ikindi ni uko ni uko ziba zifite amajwi (udusaku) ari hejuru cyangwa hasi.
Ikinyarwanda gifite ingombajwi nyinshi kurusha Igikuyu. Ibi byatewe ni uko Ikinyarwanda cyungutse ingombajwi nyinshi kandi n'Igikuyu kigatakaza nyinshi. Ni ukuvuga ko zivuka zanganyaga, Igikuyu cyatakaje amajwi amwe, Ikinyarwanda cyo kikayagumana kandi kikanongeraho n'andi. Igikuyu gifite ibihekane bine gusa bitangirwa n'inyezuru ari byo: mb, nd, nj na ng.
Ingombajwi ziboneka mu Gikuyu ni: b, , c, d, ∂, g, , h, j, k, m, n, ny, r, y, w. Aya majwi b, d, j na k aboneka gusa iyo ahekanye n'inyezuru: mb, nd, nj na ng. Hagati y'inyajwi b, d na g bihinduka: , ∂ na . Zivugirwa mu gice kimwe cy'umunwa ariko ugasanga zoroshye cyane kandi n'umwuka ugahita. Ubundi izindi ngombajwi zirangwa no guhagarika umwuka igihe umuntu avuga. Ingombajwi rero ziba mu Kinyarwanda, zitaboneka mu Gikuyu ni nyinshi cyane nka: p, pf, f, v, s, z, ts, sh, shy, nny n'izindi.

II. Amategeko agenga amajwi

2. 1. Itakazwa ry'ingombajwi p

Igikuyu kimwe n'Ikinyarwanda cyatakaje ingombajwi p. Mu ndimi zombi yahindutse h. Ntabwo ari izi ndimi zombi zatakaje p. Hari indimi nyinshi zayitakaje nk'Icyarabu, Ikiyapani, Igitagaloge cyo muri Filipine n'ahandi henshi nk'uko nigeze kubyandika mbere.

Ingero

Igikuyu>Ikinyarwanda>Igiswayire

kuhe> guha> kupa
kuhitika> guhita> kupita

Iri jwi cyakora mu Kinyarwanda riragaruka mu magambo y'amatirano: umupira, perezida, guperereza, padiri, iposho. Mu Gikuyu no mu magambo y'amatirano, p ihinduka .

Ingero: icupa>cuua
igikapu> gikau
ipikipiki>ikiiki
piripiri>iriiri

2.2. Itegeko rya Dahl

Mu Kinyarwanda no mu Gikuyu, iyo igicumbi gitangiwe n'ingombajwi y'indagi, ingombajwi iri mu y'indagi iri mu karemajambo gatangiriye igicumbi, ihinduka indanguruure: k>g, p>b, t>d.

Ingero: giti (intebe)>igiti ariko kiraato>ikirato
gutu>ugutwi ariko kuguru>ukuguru
gikoombe>igikombe kindu>ikintu
gukura>gukura kunyua>kunywa
kuria>kurya gutuira>gucira

Izindi ngero zikurikira zirerekana ukuntu amajwi yagiye ahinduka mu byo bita mu cyongereza sound correspondance.

2.3. k>pf

Mu magambo amwe y'Igikuyu ijwi k ryahindutse pf.

gukua>gupfa
ikundo>ipfundo
gukumbaca>gupfumbata
gukundika>gupfundika

2. 4. z>r

Mu Gikuyu mu magambo amwe na none z yahindutse r. Ibi bikunda kuba mu ndimi nyinshi. Mu cyongereza bwitwa rhotaricization. Ni cyo gituma nk'ijambo ry'icyongereza please 'gushimisha' mu gifaransa usanga ari plaire.

mweri>ukwezi
muri>umuzi
ruui>uruzi
mburi>imbuzi (ihene)

2. 5. t>c

Na none mu magambo amwe y'Igikuyu afite t mu Kinyarwanda afite c. Aha rero byaba ari Ikinyarwanda cyahindutse, kubera ko aya majwi y'ibihekane avugirwa mu rusenge rw'akanwa aje vuba mu Kinyarwanda akaba ari make mu zindi ndimi.

muturi>umucuzi
itu/matu>igicu/ibicu
mata>amacandwe
itimo>icumu
ituku>igicuku (ijoro)

2. 6. h>shy

Amagambo amwe afite h mu Gikuyu, mu Kinyarwanda iryo jwi ryahindutse shy.

muhiki (umugeni)>umushyitsi
ruhi>urushyi
mahira>amashyira
muihwa>mwishywa
higa>ishyiga

2. 6. v>

Mu Gikuyu v yaratakaye mu magambo yose.

kuuna>kuvuna
kuuga>kuvuga
kuuruga>kuvugura
kuumbika>kuvumbika

2. 7. b>

Ijwi b riboneka gusa iyo ribanjirijwe n'inyazuru m. Ubundi hagati y'inyajwi rihinduka , inyajwi yoroshye y'indangurure ijye kumera nk'inyajwi. Ubundi mu magambo menshi ryaratakaye.

kuoha>kuboha
kuaka>kubaka
kuamba>kubamba
kuira>kubwira
guoko>ukuboko
riua>izuba
kuimba>kubyimba

Ni yo mpamvu indangazina zo mu nteko ya 2, iya 8, n'iya 14 kuko zose zitangirwa na b, iyo b itagaragara haboneka gusa inyajwi ikurikira.

abantu>andu
ibintu>indu
ibiryo>irio
uburozi>urogi
uriri>uburiri

III. Amagambo Igikuyu n'Ikinyarwanda bihuje.

3.1. Amwe mu magambo y'amatirano Igikuyu n'Ikinyarwanda bisangiye.

gitabu (igitabo), ithanduku (isanduku), maraya (maraya), itubari (itafari), mugate (umugati), biacara (ibyashara), karata (ikarata), utharamara (isarumara), bundi wa mbau (umufundi w'imbahu), munyororo (umunyururu), karani (umukarani), igooti (ikoti), kahawa (ikawa), rangi (irangi), rangi (irangi), muthungu (umuzungu), thamaki (isamaki), nuthu (inusu), marua (ibaruwa), ndimu (indimu), icungwa (icunga), kabuti (kabuti), kuburi (ingufuri), thabibu (umuzabibu), kanju (ikanzu), -a munara (cyamunara), magathi (imakasi), thigingi (sengenge), ndibei (divayi), mitha (misa), barabara (ibarabara), cai (icyayi), cukari (isukari), thabuni (isabuni), mubira (umupira), muborithi (umupolisi), ndini (idini), mbirika (ibirika), thubu (isupu), mutharaba (umusaraba), thahabu (zahabu), kambi (inkambi), gikombe (igikombe), kibiriti (ikibiriti), biringi (ifirimbi), bendera (ibendera), biribiri (piripiri), bikibiki (ipikipiki), bururu (bururu), nduka (iduka), metha (ameza), cuuba (icupa), magathini (amangazini), magathi (imakasi), mbarathi (ifarasi), murengeti (uburingiti)

3. 2. Inshinga

gukua>gupfa; kuima>kwima; kuraara>kurara; kumenya>kumenya
kuinama>kunama; kuuna>kuvuna; guhunga>gufunga; guhora>guhora
kuuma>kwuma; gutura>gucura; gutuura>gutura; kuingira>kwinjira
guhuiha>gushyuha; kuriha>kuriha; kugura>kugura; gutigara>gusigara
kuganira>kuganira; kuora>kubora; kugarama>kugarama; kuanika>kwanika
kuui>(ku)zi; kuuga>kuvuga; kuumbika>kuvumbika; kuuruga>kuvuruga
kuciara>kubyara; gutogota>gutogota; gutega>gutega; guhituka>guhita
kurira>kurira; gucinda>gutsinda; gutembea>gutembera; kuramuka>kuramuka
kuona>kubona; kuira>kubwira; gutwara>gutwara; kuimba>kubyimba
kuruma>kuruma; kumeria>kumira; kuota riua>kwota izuba; kuiya>kwiba
kugona>kugona (gusinzira); kuikara>kwicara; kuina>kubyina; kuruara>kurwara
gutema>gutema; kuira>kubwira; kurinda>kurinda; kuratha>kurasa
gutuma>gutuma; guhitha>guhisha; gukaranga>gukaranga; kuguruka>kuguruka
kuira>kwira; kugua>kugwa; guthoma>gusoma; kurora>kurora
kuhuruka>kuruhuka; gukama>gukama; guhe/guha>guha; kumera>kumera
kunyua>kunywa; kuria>kurya; kuita>kwita (guhamagara); gutiga>gusiga
kureka>kureka; guthukia>gutuka; kumenyeria>kumenyereza
kumenithia>kumenyesha; kurera>kurera; kurima>kurima; kugura>kugura
gukura>gukura; kurakara>kurakara; guthekia>gusetha; kuoneka>kuboneka
guhura>guhura (amasaka/uburo); kurura>kurura; kuroga>kuroga
kugaira>kugabira; kuririkana>kuzirikana (kwibuka); kuenda>kwenda (gukunda)
gukama>gukama; guhuuha>guhuha; guhonoka>guhonoka (gukira)
gukorora>gukorora; gukia>gucya; kuthia>kujya; kuhia>gushya; guthia>gusya
ni>ni; ti>si.

3. 3. Amazina y'ibikoko

mbogo>imbogo; njogu>inzovu; nganga>inkanga; ngware>inkware
ngigi>inzige; nduiga>induga; njuki>inzuki; inyange>inyange
njoka>inzoka; munyongoro>umunyorogoto; ndurume>isekurume y'intama
mbia>imbeba; nyamu>inyamaswa; nguku>inkoko; mbwe>imbwebwe
hiti>impyisi; nguuu>imvubu; muthua>umuswa; ngima>inkima (inguge)
nyenje>inyenzi; ngurue>ingurube

3. 4. Ibice by'umubiri

mwiri>umubiri; igego>ikijigo (iryinyo); kiara>icyara (urutoki/ino); ruara>urwara
rurimi>ururimi; kuguru>ukuguru; kuoko>ukuboko; kuoko kua irio>ukuboko kw'iburyo kuoko kua umotho> ukuboko kw'ibumoso; mugongo>umugongo;
mutwe>umutwe; njuiri>injwiri (umusatsi); mara>amara; iniuru>izuru
ruhi>urushyi; nda>inda; kanwa>akanwa (umunwa); gutu>ugutwi;
gutega matu>gutega amatwi; higo>impyiko; ngingo>ingingo (ijosi)
riitho>ijisho; muoyo>umwoyo (ubuzima); kigokora>inkokora; ruaru>urubavu

3. 5. Imibare

rimwe>rimwe; igiri>kabiri; gatatu>gatatu; kana>kane; gatano>gatanu
gatandatu>gatandatu; nana>umunani; kenda>icyenda; ikumi>icumi
mirongo iiri>makumyabiri; igana>ijana.

3. 6. Andi magambo

nyumba>inyumba (inzu); murango>umuryango; murimi>umurimyi
mugeni>umugeni (umushyitsi); thi>isi; riitwa>iryitwa (izina); riko>iziko
mahiga>amashyiga; ihiga>ishyiga (ibuye); uriri>uburiri; mbura>imvura
ukuku>igicuku (ijoro); muturi>umucuzi; kiumbe>ikibumbe (ikiremwa)
ruambo>urumambo; ngombe>ingombe (inka); mburi>imbuzi (ihene)
iguru>ijuru; kiwanga>ikibanza; kiwanga kia ndege>ikibuga cy'indege
makara>amakara; heho>imbeho; mwaka>umwaka; mweri>ukwezi
muunyu>umunyu; uheti>ubuheta; munungo>umunuko; kiombe>igikombe
ruimbo (imbyino)>indirimbo; iyo>ejo; iyo riu ringi>ejo bundi
muringa>umuringa (muringa wa guoto>umuringa wo ku kuboko)
mureri>umurezi; kirungurira>ikirungurira; mbuu/muu>ivu
mai>amazi; nyondo>inyundo; ngo>ingabo; ruku/ngu>urukwi/inkwi
kiti>igiti; mugogo>umugogo; githaka>igitaka; muungu>umwungu
rugendo>urugendo; murogi>umurozi; njira>inzira; nyota>inyota
mwari>umwari; itimu>icumu; toro>itiro (ibitotsi); mwanya>umwanya
thoni>isoni; muthoni>umutoni (umukwe); riua>izuba; kuota riua>kwota izuba
muigwa>ihwa; muthi>umunsi; ruui>uruzi; muihwa>mwishya;
ihatha/mahatha>ihashya/amahashya (impanga); mata>amacandwe; muthanga>umucanga; mugunda>ikigunda (umurima); muraguri>umuraguzi (umupfumu);
rubora>urubori; kimira>ikimyira

3. 7. Ntera, mbanza n'ubundi bwoko bw'amagambo

kaingi>kenshi; kuraihu>kure; mbere>mbere; hamwe>hamwe
-othe>-ose; thi yothe>isi yose; -ingi>-inshi; -nene>-nini
-nini>-niniya; iguru>hejuru; -ria>-riya (kiriya/biriya/uriya...)
nja>hanze, na>na, kwa>kwa.

Kimwe no mu Giswayire, aho gukoresha mbanza yerekana ahantu igikorwa gikorerwa, akaremajambo -ni kwomekwa kw'izina iburyo.

ku meza>methani (metha-ni)
hasi>thini (thi-ni)

IV. Inteko y'amazina.

Igikuyu kimwe n'Ikinyarwanda gifite inteko y'amazina 16.

1/2.mu-/a- mundu>umuntu
andu>abantu
mugendi>umugenzi
agendi>abagenzi
3/4.mu-/mi- muti>igiti
miti>ibiti
muri>umuzi
miri>imizi
5/6.ri-/ma- igoti>ijosi
magoti>amajosi
igego>ijigo
magego>amajigo

7/8.ki-/i- kindu>ikintu
indu>ibintu
kimuri>urumuri
imuri>imuri
9/10.n-/n- njogu>inzovu
njogu>inzovu
nguruwe>ingurube
nguruwe>ingurube
11/10.u-/n- rugendo>urugendo
n'gendo>ingendo
rurimi>ururimi
nimi>indimi

12/13.ka-/tu- kaburi (kabuzi)>agahene
tuburi (utubuzi)>uduhene
14/6.u-/ma- uriri>uburiri
mariri>amariri
urogi>uburozi
marogi>amarozi

15/6 kuguru>ukuguru
maguru>amaguru
gutu>ugutwi
matu>amatwi

V. Imiterere y'Inshinga

Inshinga yo mu Gikuyu kimwe n'izindi ndimi zo muri uyu muryango zigizwe n'igicumbi hamwe n'uturemajambo mbanziriza (prefixes) n'utundi nyuzuriza (suffixes). Uturemajambo mbanziriza twerekana insimburazina ruhamya, indangagihe, insimburazina cyuzuzo naho uturemajambo nyuzuriza twerekana ukuntu ikintu gikorwa. Kimwe no mu Knyarwanda tumwe muri utu turemajambo ni shinganwa, utundi tukaba ntagombwa. Uturemagambo shinganwa ni indangazina ruhamwa, indangagihe, igicumbi n'akaremajambo cyuzuzo. Uturemajambo ntagombwa ni inyomekwambere ni- nko mu Kinyarwanda, impakanyi, n'insimburazina ngaruka. Nayo ni -i- nko mu Kinyarwanda. Indangagihe zerekana zirimo indagihe, impitagihe, impitakare, impitagihe y'ejo n'impitagihe ya kera, inzagihe ya vuba, inza gihe y'ejo n'inzagihe ya kera. Mu Kinyarwanda ntigitandukanya impitagihe y'ejo n'iya kera hamwe n'inzagihe y'ejo n'iya kera.
Insimburazina ruhamwa ni: n-, u-, a-, tu-, mu-, ma-. Iyi ya nyuma ma- ni iyerekeye abavugwa ikaba ihwanye na ba- yo mu Kinyarwanda.

5. 1. Inyomekwambere

Inshinga itondaguye y'Igikuyu iyo ari yo yose ishobora gutangirwa n'inyomekwambere. Kimwe n'Ikinyarwanda, ako karemajambo ni ni-.

nuraatemire (ni-u-raa-tem-ire)>watemye
niwaatemaga (ni-u-aa-tem-aga)>watemaga

Iyi ni- mu Kinyarwanda ikoreshwa gusa mu ndagihe no mu nzagihe ntegeka hamwe no mu ndagihe yerekana ibintu bishoka.

nibateme
nibazateme
nibatema

5. 2. Mpakana

Akaremajambo mpakana kabanziriza inshinga iyo insiburazina ari uvuga, uwumva cyangwa uwo bavuga ari umuntu umwe. Ako karemajambo ni ndi- ariko gashobora kuba ari nti- nko mu kinyarwanda ihinduka ndi kubera ko ari igihekane cy'inyazuru. Mu bwinshi, iryo remajambo rihinduka -ti- kandi rigakurikira insimburazina nk'uko ingero zikurikira zibyerekana.

ndinathooma>sinasomye<>tutinathooma>ntitwasomye ndunathooma>ntiwasomye<>mutinathooma>ntimwasomye ndanathooma>ntiyasomye<>matinathooma>ntibasomye 5. 3. Uturemajambo duhera inshinga Inshinga iherwa na -a, -ire cyangwa -eete utemeete (u-tem-eete)>watemye utemaga (u-tem-aga)>watemaga waatemaga (u-aa-tem-aga)>watemaga waatemire (u-aa-tem-ire)>watemye 5. 4. Indangagihe Indangagihe ni ri-, raa-, -ka-, -aa-, -ku-, na -ki-. Indangagihe -ri- yerekana inzagihe ya vuba, -raa- inzagihe ya kera, -ka- indagihe zikurikirana, -aa- impitagihe zikurikirana, -ki- inzagihe za kera zikurikirana. Indangagihe -ka-, -ki-, na -ku- hari ubwo ingombajwi yazo ihinduka g kubera itegeko rya Dahl. ugutema>uratema waatema>watemye ugatema>ugatema ugitema>ugitema Iyo inshinga iri mu ntegeko ruhamwa ari insimburazina y'ubuke, inshinga yitwara nk'Ikinyarwanda. Iyo ari mu bwinshi, akaremajambo cyuzuzo -ai kiyomeka ku nshinga. tema>tema <>temaai>(ni)muteme ndugaateme>witema <>mutigaateme>mwitema tiga gutema>sigaho gutema <>tigaai gutema>nimusigeho gutema menya ugaatema>menya ntuteme<>menyaai mugaatema>mumenye ntimuteme Biriya byo kwongeraho akaremajambo nyuzuriza -ai mu nshinga ntegeko iri mu bwinshi biboneka no mu Giswayire. soma>soma <>someni>musome rudi>garuka <>rudini>mugaruke karibu>ngwino<>karibuni>nimuze 5. 5. Nyuzuriza (lexical suffixes) Uturemajambo twomekwa ku nshinga kugirango twerakane uko igikorwa gikorwa usanga na none izi ndimi ziduhuje. Ni nka -an--, -ang-, -i- (-y-), -ith- (-ish-), -ik-, -ir-, -am-, -at-, -irir-, n'ibindi. 5. 6. Icyitonderwa Igikuyu hamwe n'Igiswayire kiri mu ndimi zidahindura ingombajwi y'igicumbi igihe akaremangingo kerekana igikorwa cyarangiye ari ko -ire mu ndimi nyinshi kakaba -ye mu Kinyarwanda cyangwa akaremajambo kerekana nyirigikorwa ari ko -i kerekanwa na -yi mu Kinyarwanda. Ikinyarwanda cyo kiri mu ndimi zihindura" murimi (mu-rim-i>umurimyi (u-mu-rim-yi) muturi (mu-tur-i)>umucuzi (u-mu-cur-yi) murogi (mu-rog-i)>umurozi (u-mu-rog-yi) nianyuire>nanyoye nionire>nabonye niathoomire>nasomye tutemire>twatemye VI. Amagambo yahinduye inyito Ikiranga indimi ziva indimwe ni ugusangira amagambo ariko adahuje inyito. Iyo zitangira muri zombi ayo magambo aba avuga kimwe ariko nyuma agatangira kuvuga ibindi mu rundi rurimi. Cyakora iyo umuntu asuzumye neza asanga izo nyito zifite icyo zihuriyeho. mukanda>umukandara (umugozi) muhiki>umushytsi (umugeni) mugunda>ikigunda (umurima) muciinga>umuzinga (imbunda) kirima>umurima (umusozi muremure) kuenda>kwenda (gushaka/gukunda) kugona>kugona (gusinzira) ngingo>ingingo (ijosi) kiara>icyara (urutoki/ino) igego>ikijigo (iryinyo) itiro>itiro (ibitotsi) miriro>imiriro (indimi z'umuriro) kiumbe (ikibumbe)>ikiremwa mwene>nyiri ingero: mwenemugunda>nyirisambu VII. Amagambo adahuje inteko Mu muryango w'Ikibantu, ikindi na none kiziranga ni uko usanga indimi nyinshi zihuje amagambo ariko zigatandukanywa n'uko indangazina iba yarahindutse mu rurimi rumwe. mwezi>ukwezi mugunda>ikigunda muigwa>ihwa mugambo (ijwi)>ijambo muti>igiti nyuungu>icyungo giteete>urutete ime>urume VIII. Umwanzuro Amagambo rusange y'Ikibantu aboneka mu ndimi zombi ni: umutwe, iryinyo, ururimi, ukuguru, ukuboko, ugutwi, inda, impyisi, imvubu, imbogo, inkoko, inkanga, inzoka, inzuki, inzira, ishyiga, umugeni, kurya, kunywa, gucya, gusya, kurima, kurera, kurira, guseka, kuvuna, kubona, kurota, kugenda, kuroga, na, -a, ni, si. Haba habonetse n'andi menshi iyo nkoresha ibitabo bihagije. Ikindi gitangaje ni uko izina Kimenyi ritaba mu Rwanda gusa ahubwo ryitwa n'Abakikuyu benshi. Ibitabo byakoreshejwe Armstrong, Lilias E. 1967. The Phonetic and Tonal Structure of Kikuyu. Dawsons of Pall Mall, International African Institute, London, England. Benson, T.G. 1964. Kikuyu-English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. London, England. Benson, T.G. 1975. English-Kikuyu Dictionary. London, England: Oxford University Press. Alexandre Kimenyi Note : Iyi nyandiko yasohotse mu kinyamateka WIHOGORA RWANDA